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Der Innovationspreis 2005 der Initiative Mittelstand

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Apache HTTP Server
is an open source HTTP web server for Unix-like systems (BSD, Linux, and UNIX systems), Microsoft Windows, and other platforms.

Active Server Pages (ASP)
is Microsoft's server-side technology for dynamically-generated web pages that is marketed as an add-on to Internet Information Services (IIS).

Business Intelligence
BI is a popularized, umbrella term introduced by Howard Dresner of the Gartner Group in 1989 to describe a set of concepts and methods to improve business decision making by using fact-based support systems. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with briefing books and executive information systems. A Business Intelligence System is a DSS.

A collaboratory is a community made up of individuals and organizations who agree to work together with the goal of solving problems or innovating more effectively by using the power of their collective resources, expertise and knowledge.

Commercial Marketing
which we define as the industry‘s search of a positive answer from the side of consumers and public, concerning quality and volumes of the own products and services, with the primary, although not exclusive goal: the own profit. (© 1998, FUTUREtec GmbH)

Content Management
Content management includes the process of tracking and managing a document end-to-end, from creation to copyediting to Web posting and, finally, to the archive. It can include collaborative authoring so that a group can work on a document in an efficient manner that avoids hazards such as the game of "who's got the latest version?" as well as management of the content development workflow.

Data-driven DSS or Data-oriented DSS
This type of DSS emphasizes access to and manipulation of a time-series of internal company data and sometimes external data. Simple file systems accessed by query and retrieval tools provide the most elementary level of functionality. Data warehouse systems that allow the manipulation of data by computerized tools tailored to a specific task and setting or by more general tools and operators provide additional functionality. Data-driven DSS with On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP) or data mining tools provide the highest level of functionality and decision support that is linked to analysis of large collections of historical data. Early, very limited versions of data-driven DSS were called Retrieval-Only DSS by Bonczek, Holsapple and Whinston (1981).

Data Mining
A class of analytical applications that search for hidden patterns in a data base. Data mining is the process of sifting through large amounts of data to produce data content relationships. This is also known as data surfing. Data mining tools use a variety of techniques including case-based reasoning, data visualization, fuzzy query and analysis, and neural networks. Case-based reasoning tools provide a means to find records similar to a specified record or records. These tools let the user specify the "similarity" of retrieved records. Data visualization tools let the user easily and quickly view graphical displays of information from different perspectives. Check the data mining FAQ at http:// www.rpi.edu/~vanepa2/faq.html

Data Warehouse
A database designed to support decision making in organizations. It is batch updated and structured for rapid online queries and managerial summaries. Data warehouses contain large amounts of data. A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, nonvolatile collection of data in support of management's decision making process. Check "What is a Data Warehouse" by W.H. Inmon at http:// www.cait.wustl.edu/cait/papers/prism/vol1_no1/. According to Ralph Kimball "A data warehouse is a copy of transaction data specifically structured for query and analysis" (see Kimball, R. The Data Warehouse Toolkit: Practical Techniques for Building Dimensional Data Warehouses. 1996. Also, see Greenfield, L. A Definition of Data Warehousing.)

Decision Support Systems (DSS)
(Systèmes d'Aide à la Décision) are interactive computer-based systems intended to help decision makers utilize data and models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. The "system must aid a decision maker in solving unprogrammed, unstructured (or "semistructured") problems...the system must possess an interactive query facility, with a query language that ...is ...easy to learn and use (Bonczek, Holsapple & Whinston, 1981; p. 19)". DSS help managers/decision makers use and manipulate data; apply checklists and heuristics; and build and use mathematical models. According to Turban (1990), a DSS has four major characteristics: DSS incorporate both data and models; they are designed to assist managers in their decision processes in semistructured (or unstructured) tasks; they support, rather than replace, managerial judgment; and their objective is to improve the effectiveness of the decisions, not the efficiency with which decisions are being made

DSS Generator
Computer software package that provides tools and capabilities that help a developer quickly and easily build a specific Decision Support System (cf., Sprague and Carlson, 1982, p. 11). Excel is an example of a DSS Generator. Many companies market tools for building DSS and EIS.
Dynamic HTML or DHTML
designates a technique of creating interactive web sites by using a combination of the static markup language HTML, a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript) and the style definition language Cascading Style Sheets.

Enterprise-wide DSS
A DSS that supports a large group of managers in a networked client-server environment with a specialized data warehouse as part of the DSS architecture.

Evidence Based
When one says that a form of knowledge is evidence based it means, that is has gone through a rigorous peer review process to ensure that any outcomes or results that are attributed are valid.

Executive Information Systems (EIS)
A computerized system intended to provide current and appropriate information to support executive decision making for managers using a networked workstation. The emphasis is on graphical displays and an easy to use interface that present information from the corporate database. They are tools to provide canned reports or briefing books to top-level executives. They offer strong reporting and drill-down capabilities.

Executive Support Systems (ESS)
An executive information system (EIS) that includes specific decision aiding and/or analysis capabilities.

Expert Systems
are man-machine systems with specialized problem-solving expertise. The "expertise" consists of knowledge about a particular domain, understanding of problems within that domain, and "skill" at solving some of these problems.

An Internet forum, also known as a message board, discussion board, discussion forum, web board, webboard, or, more simply, a forum, is a web application which provides a place for discussion, often for online communities. They are often considered the evolution of bulletin board systems which were widespread in the 1980s and 1990s, and of Usenet newsgroups. The topics which are discussed on forums range from politics to computer games, while many smaller communities use forums to discuss less mainstream topics.

Graphical User Interface (GUI)
A program interface that uses a computer's graphics capabilities to make the program easier to use. Graphical interfaces use a pointing device to select objects, including icons, menus, text boxes, etc. A GUI includes standard formats for representing text and graphics.

Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)
An interactive, computer-based system that facilitates solution of unstructured problems by a set of decision-makers working together as a group. It aids groups, especially groups of managers, in analyzing problem situations and in performing group decision making tasks.

Health and Safety Advisors or Safety Consultant:

physicians - health, chronic illnesses
safety engineers and technicians- health and safety in the workplace the provision of advice relating to hazards from dangerous substances, equipment for personal protection, and other elements of a safe workplace. They need a special training.
chemical and process engineers – focus on plant safety () to ensure safe production processes, fire and explosion prevention. Some of these engineers are registered, as required by law.
environmental engineers – to ensure environmental safety such as the prevention of air and water pollution.
Authorities are also a critical part of the health and safety context because of the role they play in, flow and exchange of information.

HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. The focus of HTML is on the presentation of information—paragraphs, fonts, italics, tables, and so forth—rather than the semantics—what the words mean.

Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT)

is the technology required for information processing. In particular the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.

JSP or JavaServer Pages

is a Java technology that allows developers to dynamically generate HTML, XML or some other type of web page. The technology allows Java code and certain pre-defined actions to be embedded into static content.

Knowledge Engineering (KE)
The engineering discipline that involves integrating knowledge into computer systems in order to solve complex problems normally requiring a high level of human expertise.

Knowledge Management (KM)
KM is the distribution, access and retrieval of unstructured information about "human experiences" between interdependent individuals or among members of a workgroup. Knowledge management involves identifying a group of people who have a need to share knowledge, developing technological support that enables knowledge sharing, and creating a process for transferring and disseminating knowledge.

Knowledge Management Software (KMS)
Software that can store and manage unstructured information in a variety of electronic formats. The software may assist in knowledge capture, categorization, deployment, inquiry, discovery, or communication. Products include electronic document management systems (EDMS).

Knowledge Management
Knowledge management is the management of the organization towards the continuous renewal of the organizational knowledge base - this means e.g. creation of supportive organizational structures, facilitation of organizational members, putting IT-instruments with emphasis on teamwork and diffusion of knowledge (as e.g. groupware) into place. - Thomas Bertels

is a computer operating system and its kernel. It is among the most famous examples of free software and of open-source development.

1. Commercial Marketing - which we define as the industry‘s search of a positive answer from the side of consumers and public, concerning quality and volumes of the own products and services, with the primary, although not exclusive goal: the own profit. (© 1998, FUTUREtec GmbH)

2. Self-Sustaining Marketing - which we define as marketing the results of research with all financial benefits constantly reinvested in further research, to benefit society. (© 1998, FUTUREtec GmbH)

Metadata or Meta Data
Data about the data in a data warehouse. Metadata provides a a directory to help the DSS locate the contents of the data warehouse; it is a guide to mapping data as it is transformed from the operational environment to the data warehouse environment; and it serves as a guide to the algorithms used for summarization of current detailed data. Metadata is semantic information associated with a given variable. Metadata must include business definitions of the data and clear, accurate descriptions of data types, potential values, original source system, data formats, and other characteristics. Metadata defines and describes business data. Examples of metadata include data element descriptions, data type descriptions, attribute/property descriptions, range/domain descriptions, and process/method descriptions. The repository environment encompasses all corporate metadata resources: database catalogs, data dictionaries, and navigation services. Metadata includes things like the name, length, valid values, and description of a data element. Metadata is stored in a data dictionary and repository. It insulates the data warehouse from changes in the schema of operational systems.

Model-driven DSS
or Model-oriented DSS - This type of DSS emphasizes access to and manipulation of a model, e.g., statistical, financial, optimization and/or simulation. Simple statistical and analytical tools provide the most elementary level of functionality. Some OLAP systems that allow complex analysis of data may be classified as hybrid DSS systems providing both modeling and data retrieval and data summarization functionality. Data mining is also a hybrid approach to DSS. In general, model-driven DSS use complex financial, simulation, optimization and/or rule (expert) models to provide decision support. Model-driven DSS use data and parameters provided by decision makers to aid decision makers in analyzing a situation, but they are not usually data intensive, that is very large data bases are usually not need for model-driven DSS. Early versions of model-driven DSS were called Computationally Oriented DSS by Bonczek, Holsapple and Whinston (1981).

Multi-dimensional Database (MDBS and MDBMS)
A database that lets users analyze large amounts of data. An MDBS captures and presents data as arrays that can be arranged in multiple dimensions. Variables are the objects that hold data in a multidimensional database. These are simply arrays of values (usually numeric) that are "dimensioned" by the dimensions in a database. For example, a UNITS variable may be dimensioned by MONTH, PRODUCT, and REGION. This three-dimensional variable or array is often visualized as a cube of data. Multi-dimensional databases can have multiple variables, with common or a unique set of dimensions. This multi-dimensional view of data is especially powerful for OLAP applications.

The main concept in M-work is anything, anytime, anywhere – i.e. the access to relevant information independent of time and space. This concept enables flexibility in the work process and is a driver for productivity improvements. M-work will change the user behaviour like Internet technology changed the working day for most of us. Specific user communities with special needs will lead to develop good M-work concepts.
operating systems allow multiple users to utilise the computer and run programs at the same time. All time-sharing systems are multi-user systems, but most batch processing systems for mainframes were too, to avoid leaving the expensive CPU idle while it waited for I/O operations to complete.
is the apparent simultaneous performance of two or more tasks by a computer's central processing unit.

comprises any technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0.1 to 100 nm. (One nanometer equals one thousandth of a micrometer or one millionth of a millimeter.) The term has sometimes been applied to any microscopic technology.

On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP)
Software for manipulating multidimensional data from a variety of sources that has been stored in a data warehouse. The software can create various views and representations of the data. OLAP software provides fast, consistent, interactive access to shared, multidimensional data. Check the Guide to OLAP Terminology from the OLAP Council

Organizational DSS
A multiparticipant DSS designed to support a decision maker in a setting that has a more elaborate infrastructure than a group (i.e., involving specialized roles, restricted communication patterns, differing authority levels). See enterprise-wide DSS.

Open Source
“The basic idea behind open source is very simple. When programmers on the Internet can read, redistribute, and modify the source for a piece of software (or any other form of knowledge), it evolves. People improve it, people adapt it, and people fix bugs.” From www.opensource.org

is a popular open-source programming language used primarily for developing server-side applications and dynamic web content, and more recently, other software. The name is a recursive acronym for "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor".

Quality Assurance (QA)
1. All actions taken to ensure that standards and procedures are adhered to and that delivered products or services meet performance requirements.
2. The planned systematic activities necessary to ensure that a component, module, or system conforms to established technical requirements. 3. The policy, procedures, and systematic actions established in an enterprise for the purpose of providing and maintaining a specified degree of confidence in data integrity and accuracy throughout the life cycle of the data, which includes input, update, manipulation, and output.

ROMC (Representation, Operations, Memory Aids, Mechanism Control) Design Approach
A Systematic approach for developing large-scale DSS, especially user interfaces. It is user-oriented approach for stating system performance requirements (cf., Sprague and Carlson, 1982).

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
A process by which systems analysts, software engineers, programmers, and end-users build systems. It is a project management tool, used to plan, execute,, and control systems develpment projects. The steps in the cycle include: 1) Determine user requirements; 2) Systems analysis; 3) Overall system design; 4) Detailed system design; 5) Programming; 6) Testing; and 7) Implementation. Each step is concluded by developing a written document that must be reviewed and approved before the next step begins.
Self-Sustaining Marketing
which we define as marketing the results of research with all financial benefits constantly reinvested in further research, to benefit society. (© 1998, FUTUREtec GmbH)

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises or SMEs
are companies whose headcount or turnover falls below certain limits.

Social learning or observational learning
refers to learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behaviour observed in others. It is most associated with the work of psychologist Albert Bandura, who implemented some of the seminal studies in the area and initiated social learning theory.

Technology transfer

1. A mechanism, whereby practical knowledge passes from one party to another"
(Source: European Commission DG III/D Innovation)

2. is the process of developing practical applications for the results of scientific research. While conceptually the activity has been practised for many years (in ancient times, Archimedes was notable for applying science to practical problems), the present-day volume of research, combined with high-profile failures at Xerox PARC and elsewhere, has led to a focus on the process itself.

Total cost of ownership (TCO)
is a type of calculation designed to help consumers and enterprise managers assess direct and indirect costs as well as benefits related to the purchase of computer software or hardware. A TCO ideally offers a final statement reflecting not only the cost of purchase but all aspects in the further use and maintenance of the computer components considered.

is a portable, multi-tasking and multi-user computer operating system originally developed by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy.

Virtual reality (abbreviated VR)
describes an environment that is simulated by a computer. Most virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic goggles, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers.

Web-based DSS
A computerized system that delivers decision support information or decision support tools to a manager or business analyst using a "thin-client" Web browser like Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer. The computer server that is hosting the DSS application is linked to the user's computer by a network with the TCP/IP protocol. In many companies, a Web-based DSS is synonymous with an enterprise-wide DSS that is supporting large groups of managers in a networked client-server environment with a specialized data warehouse as part of the DSS architecture.

is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for WAN networks using the phone or ISDN system as the networking hardware. It defines standard physical layer, data link layer and network layers (layers 1 through 3) of the OSI model. The packet switching network was the common name given to the international collection of X.25 providers, typically the various national telephone companies. Their combined network had large global coverage during the 1980s and into the '90s, and it is still in use mainly in transaction systems.

Year 2000.The year that many computers may develop problems because of lack of foresight on the part of programmers.In the 1980s and before, most computer programs were designed to store only the last two digits of the years on all dates.When the Year 2000 comes, these programs will show dates of 00, which may be interpreted the same as 1900.This discrepancy may cause widespread problems, especially in the large computer systems used in government and big industries.

The ZIP file format
is a popular data compression format.

Zip drive
is a medium-capacity removable disk storage system, introduced by Iomega in late 1994.


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